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  • Accountability
    The traceability of actions performed on a system to a specific system entity (user, process, and device). For example, the use of unique user identification and authentication supports accountability; the use of shared user IDs and passwords destroys accountability (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Anonymity Application
    Software that is used for anonymous surfing. Anonymity applications use public proxy servers or their own private proxy servers to hide the original IP address of the user. They may also include encryption capabilities (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Audit
    A formal examination by certified auditors of systems, programming, operations, and security to determine compliance with internal policies and procedures or with external standards. An audit is often used to satisfy legal requirements of regulatory agencies and laws. An examination of systems, programming, and data center procedures in order to determine the efficiency of computer operations. (PC Magazine, 2018)

  • Encryption
    The reversible transformation of data from the original (plaintext) to a difficult-to-interpret format (ciphertext) as a mechanism for protecting its confidentiality, integrity, and sometimes its authenticity. Encryption uses an encryption algorithm and one or more encryption keys (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs)
    The basis of the department’s privacy compliance policies and procedures governing the use of personally identifiable information (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Individual Participation
    A person’s role in the practicing of protecting fair information.

  • Data Minimization
    A principle stating that data collected and processed should not be held or further used unless this is essential for reasons that were clearly stated in advance to support data privacy (Experian, 2018).

  • Data Quality and Integrity
    The quality of correctness, completeness, wholeness, soundness, and compliance with the intention of the creators of the data. It is achieved by preventing accidental or deliberate but unauthorized insertion, modification, or destruction of data in a database. Data integrity is one of the six fundamental components of information security (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Legal Basis
    A law based on an article in the treaty giving competence to the community for a specific policy area and setting out the conditions for fulfilling that competence including budget implementation. Certain treaty articles authorize the commission to undertake certain actions, which imply spending, without there being a further legal act (Defined Term, 2018).

  • Personally Identifiable Information (PII)
    Information that can identify an individual. Other than the obvious name, address, and phone number, examples include date of birth, email address, vehicle registration number, passport and credit card numbers, as well as website logins. Also called “sensitive personal information” (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Privacy Impact Assessments
    Ensures compliance with laws and regulations governing privacy and demonstrates the Securities and Exchange Commission’s commitment to protect the privacy of any personal information the SEC collects, stores, retrieves, uses, and shares (PIA, 2018).

  • Privacy Laws and Privacy Regulations
    Regulation or statute that protects a person’s right to be left alone and governs collection, storage, and release of his or her financial, medical, and other personal information (BusinessDictionary, 2018).

  • Privacy Policy
    A declaration made by an organization regarding its use of personal information that you give it. Due to the countless opportunities for purchasing merchandise as well as signing up and receiving newsletters and other periodic information, privacy policies have become popular on the web. Such policies state whether third parties may have access to your data and how that data will be used. They may also indicate whether cookies are used (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Pseudonymity
    The fact or state of being signed with a pseudonym (Merriam-Webster, 2018).

  • Risks to Privacy
    The expectation of loss of personal space. It is a function of the probability and the consequences of harm. It may put the individuals in the position to lose something important.

  • Scrambler
    A device or software program that encrypts data for security purposes (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Security
    An umbrella term for the protection of electronic data and networks. In the IT world, security comprises authorization (Who has access?), authentication (Is this really the authorized user?), encryption (scrambling data for privacy), malware protection (avoiding destructive infiltration), as well as backup and disaster recovery (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Specification
    A definition (layout, blueprint, design) of hardware or software (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Surveillance
    The use of equipment or personal means to watch and observe a target.

  • Tracking
    The recording of an event (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Transparency
    A change in hardware or software that, after installation, causes no noticeable change in operation. Also known as “feature transparency.” Contrasts with “seamless integration,” which means that an additional component to the system can be added without incurring any problems (PC Magazine, 2018).

  • Use Limitation
    Personal data should not be disclosed, made available, or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified except a) with the consent of the data subject or b) by the authority of law (Cate, Cullen, & Mayer-Schonberger, 2013).

  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
    A private network configured within a public network such as the internet or a carrier’s network. Years ago, VPNs obsoleted private lines between company branches. Using data encryption to maintain privacy, VPNs also allow mobile users access to the company LAN (PC Magazine, 2018).


BusinessDictionary. (2018). Privacy law. Retrieved from

Cate, F. H., Cullen, P., & Mayer-Schonberger, V. (2013). Data protection principles for the 21st century.

Defined Term. (2018). Legal base/legal basis. Retrieved from

Experian. (2018). Data minimisation. Retrieved from

Homeland Security. (2018). Fair information practice principles. Retrieved from

Merriam-Webster. (2018). Pseudonymity. Retrieved from

PC Magazine. (2018). Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

PIA. (2018). Privacy impact assessment guide. Retrieved from